LACE Review paper: Comparing xAPI and Caliper


There are two principal specifications for learning analytics interoperability: Caliper, from IMS, and xAPI, from ADL. Around these two specifications are emerging ecosystems of applications and related specifications. In this LACE Review paper Dai Griffiths and Tore Hoel discuss the two specifications, and outline their structure and main features. In many respects xAPI and Caliper perform similar functions, making use of similar concepts. They are, however, quite different in their approaches to development and governance, a difference that is reflected in a different emphasis in the approach to the fit between the specifications and their user groups. The paper is available at 


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